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Chapter 6
(Living dualistic).

6.1) Singularity and totalityl.

At this point in the discussion, after enough have embarked in the most important aspects of the DAR, it is time to ask what practical consequences will determine the lives of those deemed acceptable thesis dualistic and decides to have it in their existing terms and existential. We have seen from the point of view that exist with it does not alter to a considerable extent, nor how nor the fundamental values of life individually and in groups, more or less extended it. We could therefore say that under the existing profile and there are sociological aspects of the DAR that involve a material change of ways of living together and compared to other more important concepts of life and the world if not in fact, entirely new, to be aware aiteriale of reality that accompanies and complete (the margin) the material reality that we perceive in its various aspects. Where it is determined a radical change is in terms of life since, especially with respect to theistic positions (but also, albeit to a lesser extent than monistic-materialistic positions), the conception of the world (welthanschauung) resulting therefrom, placing a Indeed general plural (and dual anthropogenic), goes beyond the two mentioned positions, opening up a whole new horizon.
If the weltanschauung of the DAR have implied changes in the way we see and manage current life, but not disruptive than the traditional ones, is on the existential interpretation of his extensive background can lead to significant changes in the outlook, where concern the hypothesis of a possible future reserved all'idioaiterio, which product idemale subtracted the laws of matter. The future becomes a dualistic perspective of life that foreshadowed a completely detached from "beyond" of the religious tradition, but is also able to release (at least conceptually) the prospective closure of materialism. It follows a hypothetical term of reference (the future), but not absurd it contradictory, which constitute important new concept of eschatological character, which becomes accessible in rational relations man all'aiteria and its denotations. This happens not because the DAR is a sort of philosophical syncretism, which together built the irretrievable finiteness of individuality required by materialism and the survival equipment required by religion, but because the dualistic vision overrides both in a different weltanschauung, which outlines a conception of world and life that is presented either as a post-materialistic and both as post-religious. Concept which is in fact compatible with both the findings of modern science, both with analytical and computational criteria of reason and with the insights of our intellect, and finally, amazingly, even with a few unavoidable instances of our psyche, shaped over millions of years of evolution of life on our planet.
The perception of the presence dell'idema in us and his reality, which puts (coordinated with other organizations) as a "function" extrafisica of our mind, leads to the emergence of the possibility that what it produces (the idioaiterio), drawing "raw material" dall'aiteria is projected in a perspective not bound by those laws that relate to the need to matter. This possibility can not be rejected a priori, considered as a radical materialism and fisiocratico that wants to defend monism at all costs, because, ultimately, the same monist materialists feel feelings, love and follow ethical rules, all things (as we hope to have demonstrated) that matter, is that inorganic living have nothing to do and that, if not entirely incompatible, however, are unrelated. Life on the ground, unlike existing ones, the DAR suggests we can no longer be used as sensors or absolute sense, nor any other investigation material. But this waiver would not leave a vacuum, because intuition is a very appropriate tool to explore that part of reality that profoundly affect our lives highlights our identity and our uniqueness, which is the same core and dynamic.
I imagine a possible objection: but if it is recognized as the real aiteria also impercepibile only be understood in this way (and perhaps even more so) the world of "paranormal" should be considered "real"! Our reply is "no", at least in the terms in which the DAR is because the field of paranormal lacks those characters of the reality that we set as essential elements of it (universality, repeatability, consistency and normality) at the time treaties, which are found and relate any experience dell'idema and more generally the whole field of investigation that we have defined extrafisica. Our view is determined by the fact that the paranormal is active and is still taking place in particular environments, under specific conditions and very often with the active presence of a "medium" between passive people. And these, quite often, tend to set the suggestion. The scenario that the world of the paranormal (or "metapsichica") offers us is therefore that of a field of experience "real" either individually or in small groups of people, but scarcely to reality in general terms in which we mail by subject and aiteria. I believe that paranormal phenomena might with good reason be considered real epiphenomenon of matter (see note 25). But on this subject back to his time.
From the above should be clear that the DAR has developed and defined through the correlation and the comparison of subjective acquisition of insight, such as "likely", with the objective of science, which are instead taken as evidence "conclusive". This was not always easy, because the first concern the elusive extrafisica, while the second concerns the actual physical and direct perception of the experiment (see section 3.2) and is so happened that we have sometimes found themselves in a situation of having to compare the 'inconfrontabile. However, using analogies and extrapolations in the right way, it seems to me that the result which is not now DAR lacks the consistency that is vital requirement for any philosophical proposal.
Be dualistic means take those few or many notions about some of the realities around us and the matter that concerns us, along with those of some intuitable only, but on fundamental and essential aspects of our existence. Actually important for the "quality" of our lives, and as a means of generating stimuli of those experiences and those relationships that constitute a "salt of life" that goes beyond the instinctual escape from suffering and searching for physical pleasures. This does not mean that they should not be pursued as a primary purpose of existence, but because they go into question those experiences fascinating and deep that only our individual sensitivity, expressed dall'idema can give us from time to time.
In sum, the DAR, albeit from an intuition extrafisica, is drawn into the newspaper and tries to determine a conception as possible complete and correct of our way of specific individuals in the midst of a very large number of other individuals like us, all together belonging to a species that sees its reality related to that of all other species of the biosphere (at any level evolutionary belong), thus forming a multi-that in turn exists in relation to a further set of relations with the world and inorganic with that phenomenal global.
However, once the scene is outlined in general in each of us, homo sapiens as a single, connected and it forms part, remains to be considered the person in his individuality, and here the landscape is "qualitatively" very different. When it comes to individuality (or singularity or uniqueness of the person) physiology is no longer enough to nothing and a little after all the psychology. For a reading of the book of the universe and of life (less than a return to religious ideologies) does not remain that point to a philosophy of life sufficiently established as a tool of analysis and construction perspective, but with all the limitations that relate as such. But to hope for an acceptable result, a philosophy that wants to address this problem adequately must also have a "frame of reference" that takes away from any temptation metaphysics in order not to lose touch with reality, and together maintain free from any intellectual complacency. "Frame" consists primarily of having always the overwhelming smallness and insignificance that not only we but also the species to which we belong together on the same planet that we host, have in the whole. In fact, what concerns us as human beings, and that is all that we can aspire to log on as the final goal of our thinking and our actions, is little more than nothing in the undisputed fact of the universe (or Pluriverso!).
The dualist is prepared, better than those who follow other addresses existential, to "hear" the undisputed fact of the general context in which it is inserted. This precondition is largely absent in our daily consciousness, although widely documented and acquired dall'intelletto and reason. This is because at this mental cosmic insignificance remains largely an abstract concept, completely buried in some dark anfratto mind. The awareness of the relationship we / cosmos gained from the classroom or retrospective, continues in general (perhaps astronomers and astrophysicists in part) to remain totally forgotten and extraneous. Let us, nothing forbids us to use our concepts of time and space, and with them those of place / location and time / range for practical-existing, but we should also take note that even the same concepts of birth, life and death are totally insignificant in time (which exists only as undersized space) when you consider that our universe was born no less than twelve billion years ago and before that could have as many or more (and that our life does not exceed On average, the century).
Moreover, all our perceptions of bodies with mass and volume, they are chains of mountains or oceans, concern still always something insignificant compared to the universe and therefore remain modest sample size and breadth to our use and consumption. And if we move in diametrically opposite to the infinitely small, our inability to imagine the subatomic world, we face an equally inconceivable distances for our intellect. In fact we are for the most read of very large or very small numbers such as total abstractions, without knowing what it really mean.
This ability of the dualistic experience of his intellectual limitations in relation to the "minimum" and "most" of them can not also forget that the birth of it took place in an infinitesimal moment, then continue for billions of years, and that then the events that concern the global may be a last forever or almost nothing. On the other hand, know only what the universe is, or becomes, very close to us, physically or through time, ultimately a "here and now" while everything else becomes a number that often precedes a unit of measurement , both (in their abstractness) without really perceptive and intuitive. Moreover, the light of celestial bodies that we see in the firmament at night or what our record is that telescopes dell'istante party where the signal is, in many cases years ago, and those bodies could not exist even more by what exploded or collapsed, when they find the after-life. Then it is clear that our relationship with the universe (in terms of information) is mostly instrumental or mathematical, but it is certainly not with scientific data that we will find a way "heard", and therefore useful to relate the universe farther. Keep in mind that scientific data on which we build our knowledge, not even then become the "fetishes" of objectivity, because ultimately their objectivity is even questionable, as is manifest in a general scenario of pure "conventional ".
It is only through the introjection and integration of those data in a rich weltanschauung also aspects of life, ie "man-made" significant, which will ensure that even a distant reality to become an active part of our intimate relationship with the universe in its entirety. The only "scientifically" the primary subject, nature and the universe might make us fall into a sort of "unreality" abstract where between "us" and "all" we are just numbers and equations. Therefore, we, that we use to build that relationship above all the insight, if sometimes find useful to use some element of induction, we have to worry about its validity "inside" of weltanschauung dualistic and not whether it owns or possesses a 'abstract scientific truth, so we leave epistemology to talk induction if we have used has the character of "scientific" or not.
Yet despite all of our ignorance and our failure reflects the universe in us, because every atom there is already enough in itself to generate a universe. This is at once original and always beyond us, we founded, but we track above, and also our future. And our considerations would still be incomplete if obtusely (as was already mentioned) exclude the possibility that the one in which we live is only one among many universes exist, or that, more than anything that could wrap, there is still other. .. and that the "totality" is really an "infinity".

6.2) Living today (with a look beyond).

The future is not the "future", at least in dualistic terms. It is not what is "ahead", but a hypothetical dimension, substantially different, to which we may unknowingly go if it perceives that the same and processes did not follow the fate of death that it brings with it, but rifluisse (in form and found renewed) under which derives its essence. We have already said that when the body dies, leaving the same with no support and that at this point that, as part of the body, can only die. But the only thing that could be real after the death quell'idioaiterio its product, that it "lived" and that could be intended to reach and dissolve in that it is. In short, the future can be reasonably assumed, but then we must stop, nearly unable to even imagine anything, and if we try, we risk wandering at all. Yet it, as assumptions, it remains there, in front of us, and we must take this into account.
The exercise of imagination about dell'aiteria and it is a free, certainly not necessary, but not useless. It allows us, perhaps, to bring us to our reason and our feelings, an unknown but we are concerned, since invests the nucleus of our identity (the same) as the truly unique and not of men shared individuals to face the universe. The same is the foundation of our existence as individuals and as a true "life made of unique unrepeatable. But this only leads us to stress once again our boundless ignorance, so what we are doing to stay just finished a game, although probably the most important game of all.
However we can, even now, in everyday life, open (by playing a little of our existence) of our existing horizons, they combine the rational with the hypothetical future, but intuitively realistic unknown and unknowable, that we might call "pseudo-real" in "present" to our conscience. In this perspective there are some "issues" resulting from the practical experience that will combine with the dual weltangschauung and allow us to act on a little project destinale that we still have to achieve before getting off the train of life. They are "themes" from catterizzati consider the fact that, examine them and make them their own is a totally unnecessary for the purposes of promotion and assertion of ourselves as part of the matter in which we live, of which human society is the Our main contact person: perhaps could include something else, but that sense yet still too little.
Surely, with our attention to them, not necessarily achieve any more success, in fact, probably even lose a few opportunities, perhaps together with the goodwill of someone. Yet, somehow, we shall approach the hidden and elusive core of our "authenticity", where our special, unique and unrepeatable, individuality is hidden: the same. Perhaps we gain in our dignity as human beings, precisely because these issues highlight the awareness of our smallness, our weaknesses, our limitations, our restrictions, but at the same time the desire to exert our best Eleuterio to bring us closer to that 's authentic freedom that remains hopelessly foreclosed.
In follow on from what was anticipated we will also take into account that in the "themes" of ethological and soon we will be always present, in the background, the relationship between us and university as we dashed. This is to address issues of ethics and behavior that are preliminary to open to a horizon that stands out in the field aiteriale watermark that we proposed, although we remain absolutely within the material to which we belong by living. In fact they only invest a reflection of the same, especially since our concern esistentività (which represents the material in which we exist and move) with which we must reckon in our condition, which operates in a certain environmental situation in a role that we are filled. All elements of our existence which apply to everyday life and which, indirectly, affect our ability to immerse nell'esistenzialità or in that state of consciousness extrafisico concerning the same and its events.
The DAR, on the other hand, it is also proposed to make a reinterpretation of the existing parameters with which has to deal every person placed in a geographical context, institutional and social. In other words: how can we live the best material, taking account of the future that may not involve the totality of our being, but perhaps the most intimate and elusive to us? This would certainly be a problem for those who continue to think of himself second quell'opposizione soul / body, persistently poor, which has already far too much damage anthropological irremissibili.
For the DAR the soma (the body in the strict sense) are only el'idema different functions of our adventure in his life taken unity, so it is only able to embrace them both in a perspective broad enough to include and not take them ever consider separated. We are also fairly well endowed in this regard, the multi of our mind and the plasticity that characterizes the company makes "natural", although not necessarily easy. On the way there are indeed such "psychological barriers", all imprintings let dall'ideologia religion in its various forms of "transcendence", propionate in good faith by parents or educators from generation to generation. So that the DAR, as a philosophy dell'immanenza, and contrary to religion (which puts the irreconcilability matter / spirit and the administration in terms fideistico-moral) recognizes the compatibility of what was given to axiological opposite (the soul and the body) in terms of new and different dual reality.
So the DAR proposes a design and management of the body / the same, or if you want existing / existential, in terms not only eudemonistici and axiological. In fact it does not deal with value judgments, but rather more rational and appropriate for groped to achieve, together with a greater awareness of life, the greatest possible happiness for himself and those closest to him in emotional and relational. In other words: how to live harmoniously, knowing my irremediable finiteness, knowing that I die, that my flesh disintegrerà, while a "not there, but" that is "derived from me, could access to a future beyond my death? How to make it difficult to say, since each of us there is a "proper" to the well-being, harmony and happiness, but you can start putting some point general subject of in terms of human ethology, some issues exist, such as: a) moira (or sense of tragedy), b) the Eleuterio, c) and the irony) the game. Connects them to the comic as a central aspect of the encounter between the forms of human needs and reflected freedom and at the same time as demistificatore (specifically philosophical) of the scheme that our mental psyche develops and sometimes imposes on our current way of thinking the world, things and existence.

6.3) The moira (The sense of tragedy).

The word moira (µ???a) still exists in greek with modern meaning of "fate", but in ancient greek has assumed various meanings. Primitive than that of "part attributable to the individual," on "position and condition" to "part assigned" to "destiny or fate." But the Moire (plural) in Greek mythology were three minor deities (Atropa, Clot and Lachesi), daughters of Night, which are seeking to weave the destiny (the "Party") of each man (one spinning, and another roll third cut the thread of life). Although in theory this "party" consisted of pleasure and pain, good fortune and misfortune, in practice the Moire were feared deity, seeing in them quell'ineluttabile course vital that nobody could escape. We use the term moira fusing together the different meanings, but especially by connecting to the need, as a substantive matter that there is.
Moira in the DAR has two faces, dell'irriducibile that ignorance and the inevitable suffering that is inherent in living. The moira is then dual, the night tragic sense of ignorance in which we have to exist, the abyss of our wanderings through the cosmos, without knowing why or the purpose, and suffering that permeates our destiny. For the DAR so "tragic" is not the way of life, but its foundation, as "way" of being and the human itself. It is so tragic dell'esistentività every aspect, before which we are powerless, since it coincides with the fact that you exist, it is also closely related to the necessity of matter.
It follows that the tragedy comes as the foundation and then, almost essence of life itself. Living that we perceive as a "stretch", but a move towards a dark end to which we can know nothing and which can at most think that could possibly hide in biological reason. But we also perceive it, albeit in a confused, that our aim is at least a real horizon, that of freedom, and that this is our indispensable resource to protect us from the negative effects of the tragic. It leaves us a glimpse of a tear in the wall of the need, through which we see a virtual place in which it dominates more and not directed. However, we only test to be subject to a permanent tension, which manifests itself primarily in the will to live, and then the desire to gain pleasure, in all its forms, and then escape the suffering, in every respect. This ignorance of the purpose and this conflict between the desire for pleasure and the reality of suffering are the two points of a tight rope on which we, tightrope walkers without skill, try to move away from the second to go to the first. The desire and his frustration must be considered structural life, as are the discomfort or suffering of which are at once cause and effect, in a game of mirrors and the feedback loops in the face of which we feel as if they were drunk without direction .
The problem of the tragedy that arises is moira immanent to man, because it is evidence of a consciousness that each of us can verify. Neither will be solved in its general and inflexible burden on the sole fact that many men consider it passed and overturned in religious faith or in such behavior by changing the natural relationship with your existing carrier (the body) by suspending the effects that this entails . The ascetics, to achieve their goals for the most part must deny the requests of their bodies, to break every social link, leave the flow of living together and be subject to harsh discipline: this, in our opinion, may become an insult to nature, to life and the biological reason that "makes" every living entity. But it is also completely irrelevant compared to the overall reality of moira, as are also forms of inner peace, more or less accessible by temporary acts, behaviors or experiences related to ethics or the aesthetic, that the dualistic experiences and seeks to achieve, but who knows not to be resolving. Ignorance and suffering incumbent upon us not only as something that we afferisce, but also as something that is there. So do not just have to accept them, take them and run them as one of our inalienable attribute. Among Schopenauer, theorized that the escape from life, and Nietzsche, who advocates the enthusiastic acceptance, the DAR is on the side of this, even taking the necessary distance from his theory of the superman.
The dualist can not accept that life, with all its consequences, because it is the extraordinary adventure that separates an existence out of nothing: and be "something", even in suffering, it is always better than nothing. We, being born, we become an "it" against a "no" and from that moment tears in front of us a horizon of endless possibilities, limited only by the laws of matter (the need), but with the certainty that it exists, though far away, a horizon of freedom, which concerns us and towards which we tend. Not only: the dualist does not want to undo all the desire, which is the "engine of life", but to manage it better to experience more advanced and complex. Experience is perhaps above all want and desire must be considered a positive aspect of that tension that is in us. This "true" in itself but the end result of our efforts towards a goal can often be defeated, and where, more generally, our whole life would be nothing but a rosary of defeats. The final outcome of everything we do is almost never granted, the action is more important is the higher the risk of failure, because the greater the premium in case of success: this is the "human challenge" that the DAR will which proposes to challenge anything.
Yet ours is really quell'impulso implacable towards that freedom extrafisica that in its natural and human-we called Eleuterio (see next paragraph). And it is precisely that it encourages us to play and get in the game, because, after all, the important thing is really making our game "of human beings. A game in which the failure or success is often determined by circumstances entirely unknown, or inscrutable, and they depend mainly on factors unrelated to us. But often it is the defeat to stimulate to new challenges and new potential targets. Sometimes we are so fortunate to even understand why we were defeated, sometimes because it was a battle wrong, sometimes because it was the wrong strategy. The failure, which in this case helps us to have a fair view of the happenings and to develop intellectually, carry with them the prodromes subsequent victory, while sometimes an undeserved victory ottunde mind preclude further goals exist and existential. But there's more: the mere fact of fighting when the volition or the contingency request is already a victory of life over death, while the waiver is always a defeat, even when it offers peace and tranquility.
But we must not confuse the act with "rough" and not even make an "action for action" in itself, which may take the character of a dull "activism". Exhausting their energies foolishly is the best way to exclude the possibility of achieving some important goal. For this reason, the occasional leisure is not just healthy, but essential to be able to purchase energy, reflect on the state of things and take stock of our actions. Only a rested mind can produce valid plans for the future being able to do the analysis of the past, which always extremely tiring and difficult. That is always a basic rule: do little better, with measure and reason, that you, with fatherly feelings and disorder. And then we must consider the "quality" of the purpose that one finds as a conclusion of our actions there are companies and businesses trivial series, there is a useful stress and there is one useless. Ruining the lives for trivial and irrelevant things is a foolishness that the dualist should avoid.
Falls at this point to refer to an appropriate adjective that sometimes, in the current language, is considered similar or even synonymous with tragedy: I refer to drama. It is not simply a question nominalistica, what is tragic is not only different from that which is tragic, but in many ways it is the opposite. This tragic occurrence is the son of moira, acting on the structure of the intellectual and idemale and is never a mere psychological fact that often creates tension that produces existential suffering, but can also evolve in design and creativity. Besides, the tragedy is quite often not even really feared, perhaps because unconsciously feel like "our stuff", as something that is not from outside but inside we always or even that there is. Since moira, even when it is accompanied by severe damage in terms of suffering, mutilation or risk death, reveals all the essential story of our own existence.
Death is the true resolution of moira, not because it would lead to the loss of life, resulting in a dead body, but because, being the consideration of the birth, reveals the "other side" of life. But it is not so much the death itself (such as death) that makes our life tragic, but its necessity: death is merely necessary, for without death there would be no life. By contrast, what is never dramatic character of necessity, but always and only "contingency". The tragic occurrence does not deprive us of our freedom ever (the Eleuterio) or she is or she makes clear. We can react to tragedy in different ways, in a wide range of attitudes or emotional states ranging from fear to indifference, but in any case our future will remain conditional intervene only if permanent effects on our mental structure. Only in this case, and then "after", the drama becomes even tragic, because then the shadow / light of moira appears in all its evidence. In this case it emerges in all its power, as subsume the drama, which is cause and contingent, but ultimately always ephemeral. In some cases the real cause of the tragedy is not the occurrence itself, but the latent psychological problem that the person suffers in his unconscious, these situations are sometimes very painful because it is too humiliating. Then, if the victim is able to read in depth what reveals moira, can make a real leap in quality of life.
It should be remembered that it is not accidental that the lexical sense of drama is of course geared towards the significance of events which, in addition to negative consequences for those who live, are often spectacular characters who are totally unrelated (although sometimes present) to the tragic. But what is tragic is often useful for us to better discover the essence of the "comic", which has its side and set a great bonus that we humoral and strengthens us in managing our adventure in the life of the cosmos. Resource against the dozens of unpleasant facts that we have to encounter in everyday life and for which a simple change of point of view may trigger, like a sudden revelation, a good sense of comedy. " And as we shall see, the sense of the comic is an essential ingredient of that mental state, at peace and far from everyday banality, which is the irony of the DAR existential, but also a fundamental aspect of the ontological relationship between matter and aiteria, as it appears in 'meeting / clash between the mental reflexes of necessity and freedom, which in a sense be made "short". Thus the advent of comedy in a situation of life current (natural comic) or a text or a performance (artificial comic) becomes a fact be of great importance. For this reason the subject of the comic (which also has a more specifically philosophical cutting) will be developed in the Second Part, when the reader will be better penetrated in the folds of the DAR and will be easier to insert it properly in its structure.

6.4) The Eleuteria (individual freedom).

The Eleuteria is that specific type of "relative freedom" that we are concerned because the living matter evolved, human, subject to need. It is therefore the exercise of incentive incoercibile of self-determination and to break through the invisible wall that limits our chances of being ed'agire. To the extent that we are condemned to manage our condition as men we have, indeed, the Eleuterio to design our desire and its fulfillment, to seek pleasure and to escape the suffering. But even more power to cast into a horizon intuitable, where there probably genuine and unconditional freedom. And where it should also remove the "maternal" tyranny of the necessity that protects and preserves the life of each and the relations of each with all, and that of all with all, but we limited our act. For this reason, in his underwear, the dualistic know if that freedom "in itself" is only understood or could have already been sensed and internalized to the point of emergence and appear in a real horizon, towards which to strive virtually.
Being bound to the laws of matter our individual volition are discovered and forced guided by clearly defined the limits of our human possibilities, but also free to create reference models of non-guided and not forced. This means that the way of being of homo sapiens spread over a road where the "edge" is both "boundary", but, like all the boundaries, has also its own transgression. Thus the Eleuterio, which must obey the needs of the field, can sometimes push us to make a leap beyond that border.
The possibilities dell'eleuteria within and outside of that boundary, therefore, remain enormous for those who know and want to see them, probably much greater than we ever have been able to imagine. It is plausible to think that the Eleuterio is an extraordinary power which it is talking too much, ultimately underestimate the real value and the amplitude of action and strength. This happens often because our protective mind keeps us away from risks and sacrifices that could harm our integrity salutifera: an excessive identification with the Eleuterio can lead us in the madness of the risk to love risk. However it is still always that we can "create" the individuality out of our box and look for opportunities to keep active and develop the mental function that we called the same, which is the core of individuality and essence.
The uniqueness of our relationship to the totality of matter can therefore always suffer tearing and patching, as the transgression and a return fold are possible, but our reason is to determine when and how. This possibility we can make small epigoni real Sisyphus, Prometheus and Tantalus, but we also know that there can be a metaphor of Zeus that might need time punirci. In a society of men, rules of coexistence with selected or incurred, the identity of the individual can become a hard diffuse solidarity between loneliness and sometimes the reason may lead us to temporarily put it in brackets. But we also know that if the individual may be similar should not ever become "sisters": look at all costs and solidarity un'acquiescenza becoming cowardice is the best way of losing oneself.
Dell'eleuteria we should not even threaten to make it a fetish, as some individualistic anarchism. People are social animals and socializing is a prerequisite for a humanity in which the individual is integrated to form the group, which is the minimal unit of a democratic society. But company is only one that is premised on the respect of everyone dell'eleuteria, as the cornerstone of a democracy of consensus in which ideally nothing (or as little as possible) is required and everything is subject to review or to their representatives. The person who wants to free you should not be attempted dall'individualismo because it also wants to be free to choose which links take to lead their lives within a community. The more you tune with the group and its greater royalties behavioral constraints assume, but the important thing is that this is done knowingly, without feeling of constraint ties that had not been taken into account.
And it is still Eleuterio authorizing and guide the individual and the group to also check those who control power. While it is still the Eleuterio in a tyrannical or totalitarian regime is not the way to overcome and combat it. Therefore, the fight for social, within any one community, the individual has at least two options, even if the reality of social ties do not always allow them to him either: move away in search of longer free and democratic, or accept the rules of the community in an assessment of advantages and disadvantages of trying to operate from rear to improve it.
Obviously the more the individual is part of a plurality of individual more likely to lose in individuality, and this remains true even when the man is not subject to the community, but has a share of power within the community itself. When an individual is then at the head of a social structure the possibility of acting on its similar increases exponentially in power before it and the result is a real power in which melts of his individuality, which must flow across the community . Indeed, in a democratic opportunity to act on freedom of the subject does not lead to greater freedom for themselves but the social importance of the role is directly proportional to the share of personal freedom that you have given up for the best power management . This is perhaps true, paradoxically, even if a despotic power, as the tyrant is a prisoner at the end of the machine of oppression that he himself has constructed.
The power, in biological terms, is a related to success, and the evolution rewards just living species that are successful, but the biological reason not care for the individuals who constitute them. Yet in the communities of the man-the Eleuterio change somewhat the relationship between the singularities that constitute this particular species of animal aggregation is not the privilege that the person has to signify its freedom, but the possibility that the remained of self. Eleuterio This can be done to better "together" with others and in a centralized, but the social freedom is all the more stronger is the influence of weak central power in the lives of individuals.
Freedom and constraint are two coordinates that define the individual as a social subject in relation to volition. Determination in man always wants something defined in a defined direction, a generic volition is not a true volition. That is why when man wants something, in fact, wants even (or especially) something behind or beyond the thing itself. But not always the will also Eleuterio, sometimes you may want to act while under the pressure of a bond. Will the DARoga or medicine that you are "feeling good" does not mean the exercise Eleuterio. And in many cases the power may even become antithetical all'eleuteria, so in an imaginary axis Cartesian system of the existing life of a single man can develop as a line starting from the bend towards the axis of power or that dell'eleuteria: the more towards the first bend, the more away from the second. To avoid this risk, the dualist should not seek too much power and perhaps in many cases even better place in his individuality difficult choosing the opposite, the apotheosis, which will be discussed in due course.
Ultimately it is the area of sociability that the freedom to play the dualistic, which should never be a party to this individualistic. For this he must be either a priori opposition to the rules of the community or passively accept them, but permanently subject to the criticism, in view of achieving a level of freedom, reasoned and reasonable, where everyone will not ever harm for 'else. It must always be aware that the community of men is also an organic product of reason and in that sense a product that takes the individual who is always concrete and particular for the set. This means that the dualist must never should have "control" the biological reason, even if it is a necessity, because basically each of us is also why organic "updated". However, he is faced with the biological constraints by virtue of his individual consciousness, which remains sovereign. From this it follows that the individual is entitled to decide to deny the biological reason, even if the cost of what could become its downfall
On the other hand, the dualist can not think that being anti social behavior may in itself encourage the best realization of individuality, because it is the best in the relationship with other individuals and not in opposition, and therefore should have a sociality which safeguards the freedom of self "with" that of all. He knows that his freedom is at risk with no rules and that only they can ensure the operation and maintenance. But it is within these rules that he reserves the right to reject the undue influence, not so much related to the exercise of their rights as citizens (who must assume respected), as well as those of individual liberty to express the uniqueness of their personality, if that is not detrimental to the rights and freedoms of others.
I realize that there is a certain obviousness to these observations, but were not clarified to give the false impression that a philosophy based on individualism denies the sociality. But at this point we must also condemn a type of social negative, that we must beware, because the communities there are also unwritten rules, which sometimes govern the behavior of the components so subtly detrimental to binding and individuality. I refer to practices, customs, habits, traditions or rituals recognized social and collective punishment breached by any loss of "ownership" and the consequent marginalization. Sometimes they are much heavier to tolerate a notoriously oppressive law, precisely because it never ever official and assumptions. The collective behavior resulting relate largely to smaller groups. For example, at either end porrei, on the one hand, some small isolated rural communities and on certain more or less numerous metropolitan community youth. In the first case the behaviors are plaster from a reverential towards slavery of tradition, the second from the dependence on self-stereotyping or the result of skillful marketing operations hexogen.
As we have just outlined is what is usually for "approval", which is the flattening of the individual about what (sometimes with denotations of abstraction or even absolute inconsistency) keep the group together, without there being a founding any rational assessment of its nature and its denotations. Behind all this is a problem often overlooked, but psychologically crucial to many individuals from the weak personality, which is the aforementioned "ownership." There are people who absolutely need to "belong" and "feel accepted within any one group, otherwise they feel lost. To meet this need means much of the rhetoric of "being together" that one side has some merit to promote sociability and integration, especially for the weakest, but it has also the failure to encourage sometimes conventional behavioral patterns and impersonal.
In any case, the dualist must always be a strong simple rule: adapt, if deemed appropriate, the rules of the community, but be ready at any time and in any circumstance, to stand out and break away from those situations where it is putting at risk the own individuality and with it the responsibility of Eleuterio. Since the identity el'eleuteria are the only things truly "our", which must never be bartered with the classic dish of lentils "quiet mental or social at all costs.

6.5) The irony.

The irony is dualistic in that which perceives as ridiculous the countless aspects of our fears for our safety as, our concern as our apathy, but especially for those events to absurd presumption that we are away from the sense of reality. Thus a long period of physical well-being we can presume to be invulnerable, or a sudden happened to have talent, or a simple act of generosity to be good, and so forth. Everything dominates our psyche, changing a whim scenarios stage of his comic-DARammatico, we think that scares us and that excites us and we minimize, which leads us to walk as children in the most inconsistent scenarios of irrationality.
The irony is a psycho-intellectual complex, which is sometimes favored by available genetic or otherwise made it difficult, but that has its origin in an opposite attitude to life that can strip the monsters, the phantoms and fetishes of the contingency, both individually and collectively (and in consequence of which we suffer or enjoy every day), finally making "naked". At the root of what becomes the subject of irony are the ghosts of our presumption that it can judge, the noble el'ignobile, the beautiful and the ugly, the good and the bad, the desirable el'esecrabile to impose patterns of mental often contravene common sense and sometimes all five senses that we have. But do not get into arguments or psychological costumes that are outside our field of research and I will limit myself to highlight quell'umana assumption that we had already made clear by speaking of homo sapiens and that I would return here and learn, at the cost of some repetition.
Our presumption of magnitude and sometimes even omnipotence (often reductively attributed only to children and immature) that normally characterizes our self and our behavior should be brought to the surface, the deadlines for ricondurci true of our relationship with the world and our psychological vulnerabilities. But the irony is the dual result of the awareness that the world consists of two to one, the one that concerns us, in us and around us is constantly in the annuls of dynamic flow, and thus is a sort "non-being", while the other, which has some way to draw persistence is projected into an uncertain future, and it is only un'indefinita shape that is mirrored in our idem. In other words, is the very fact of life that we condemn the finiteness and the annulment, while quell'incerto and indefinite future, which could in any case become real only after our death, but only for a "derivative" of individuality (the idioaiterio), we expected "ironically" winking between the fog of dubious insights that bring with them a sea of uncertainty.
As living our destiny is to return to nature what it is, thereby closing the cycle life / death of the infinitesimal portion of matter that we are, but at the same time we feel that our life is unlimited as long as where the threshold is not to discount in the death, which however we never know, nor "how" or the "when. Since the death that "we know" is always "the other", because when there is "our" we will be there to live.
But there is another side of irony, which concerns not the appearance of life, but the existing ones. We have already mentioned about the "comic" as a element of "DARammatico" that often accompanies it. The irony dualistic, discovers that his "body" in existential 'failure to live, would not be complete without the colorful and charming "dress" existing "comedy" that is, as the radiant rises and fun on the foundation of existential "sense of comedy." Without the sense of the comical comedy more subtle and intense may pass unnoticed in the forest for the most trivial and that gives us access to most of the stage show. The irony is an important behavioral aspect that is born and develops in an intimate part of a reality that is the comic and of which we treat separately and in due course, given the importance it plays in the formulation of the DAR. The comic is in fact on the thread of the blade that divides the necessity and its existential negation (as a "spillover" of freedom of insight), but ricasca always on the side of existing needs and for this reason tends to put it into evidence and then mocking the human simulacra. It thus reveals both the look grotesque pretense that these can play in the behavior "DARammatico" and in those prejudices schematic psyche that sometimes preserves and defends strongly.
The irony, in life, presents two perspectives derived leading both to a single account "ironizzante": the first is the relative insignificance of our individuality, which we founded, as a material (in the future of the present) merged with the totality of the biosphere, the second is related to the entity aiteriale post-individual, you lose the "plurality" of aiteri, which, consistent with the character dell'aiteria, "should" be the framework of the future . After giving the 'individuality of the DAR-based touch us then, ironically, to admit that this entity may, after all, be the subject of irony.
So the irony is not sparing even the DAR, that placing be dynamic (the course) falls in frequent tautologies (since matter can not be that diveniente) and assuming that it be an arbitrary stable operation makes imaginative. Ultimately in the exercise of thought, between tautologies and assumptions, in the end even with us giganteggia always quell'abissale ignorance that lies behind all of our intuitions, which leave us only a glimpse of the ghosts that it ' Man always wants to grab and unify. For this reason this is not even beyond "our" two of the ghosts (dynamic and stable): the first because we standoci inside to avoid any neutral perspective, the second because standoci off is concealed in an area that we are precluded .
A "form" infinitesimal aggregation of matter is significant for those places, because it is the owner, but it disappears in the general context of all possible forms of matter itself. But maybe, like, the quality of a idioaiterio intuitively expressed in the report with all the other qualities exist in dell'aiteria, where the quality of the still obscure, like an immense firmament that makes it indistinguishable each star. Any view you have of ourselves, both in relation to this (life) and in the future, it always ends up to be so disproportionately irretrievable improvement is overstated compared to the reality that we are concerned. The natural and constitutional redundancy positive self-view is "necessarily" inevitable and "freely" pursued as a form of self-defense against the dangerous "underestimation" of himself and also constitutes a valuable ingredient for "loving oneself" as the basis of ' instinct of self preservation. Yet our belief in knowledge "creeps into the folds of everyday life as existing in our current attitudes. Just think of the presumption to believe "acquired" our subatomic and cosmological knowledge, which, however, being incompatible with our senses and our minds, let us continue to live with the "above" and "below", with the land that is firm, with the moon and the sun come and go, with the atomic nucleus which is a heavy ball around which "run" and so on.
But the "posting" of dualistic irony also lies in front of some pathetic attempts to determine and correct our project destinale drawing on fideistici or more uncouth superstition. This fact confirms our subjection to the finitude and death, offering in return only the exercise of a freedom-conditioning (the Eleuterio). Since, its fate, in the terms on which we place, is a "project" that each of us is drawn and that continues to re-experiencing, but could not escape the fact of being condemned "to live dying" in a process unrestrainable to the cancellation.
But it is precisely the freedom to think beyond the project which in part destinale us "forces" we acquire a new form of assessment than the trembling and passions which carries the I, as compared to the concerns and care that we devote to our health, our image, our heritage. Even our affections with a new perspective, since we know that we love their bodies decay and die, and that only the relationship with the same living there, "maybe", will continue in new form in the future that we have assumed.
In a way for us all is lost and nothing is lost, this contradiction, with its themed and may lead to a new vision of our life that we can bring lasting peace and serenity like all'atarassia (no disturbance) theorized the ancient Greek philosophy and that the DAR is characterized as eireneusi (paragraph 10.4 of Part II). And in the end perhaps, from this particular state of mind always preimmerso in moira ... feel out the silent sound of a refreshing smile.

6.6) The game.

You should never take too seriously on life to the point of losing the taste of giocarsela. This maxim may work for everyone, but for the dualist is some reason to own it. And that the game is an important part of the DAR can also analyzing the secondary meanings of the themes already ethological seats. The moira highlights the need to have our bodies, but also that of the tragic Tenaglia can be reduced by the "playful" bursting of the comic. The Eleuterio us to defend at all costs our individuality, but to put it into play with that of "other" or that of "together", and also relate to advantages / disadvantages of being alone or being with others, in a game in which the parties must know when to recite a script and when a subject, finally achieving a synthesis that we imagine that we can win the game of life. The irony finally put us in the face of our laughable ambitions and has highlighted the absurdity of our presumptions, so we are invited to play with them, carrying them around and denuded of their funny trinket.
Even more serious philosophers as Plato, Aristotle and Kant, along with many others and most at least, have put the game in relation to human creativity. That game that saw Schiller, assimilating art, even in the disorderly and chaotic abundance of roots, branches and leaves of each tree, so imaginative and excessive compared to actual biological needs of the intake of minerals, exposure to light and acquisition of mass and energy for chlorophyll synthesis, to the point of becoming a model for that "useless" freedom's sake that the art and the game made. But we know that the aesthetic aspects of nature are such "just for us" (because it aiteria the sense that it is at the margin and wraps), whereas the material that follows is the organic laws of reason (player itself? ), which, in promoting the differentiation against uniformity promotes the development and preservation of life.
Apparently then, the apparent paradox, that the game can creep in need, that does not mean only "uniform" in direction, but also always "variety" in the forms. Diversity and plurality, which in turn lead to the triumph of the "difference", which is rich in life and ultimately even of life: in fact, life is more abundant and more varied living matter is still far from extinction. So also in the context of nature must be placed within the human game, which is inspired by the diversity of the material that surrounds and is inherent in all its many aspects, suggesting patterns of forms and behaviors to be used in a game of "life for life" , irrespective of goals and purposes. So it is like a dip in the sea of existence itself, abandoning himself to the waves and eddies, like so many bubbles of foam that emerge and dance, are born and die, the ocean of immense and mysterious.
The real game is played just for the sake of playing and what to play to win is a little less game. But the two experiences are often confusing and the player knows only that "he is playing" and ignores that at the same time is always "played". The player and the game live in a suspension of time in which the subject and the object continuously exchange the part. For this play becomes even rely on the chance, as a result of causes with no connection to meet ignoring, just in a game of chance. The game, on the other hand, it is also the first activity, serious, all of the small mammals and beyond, through which he learned of the world in general and in particular the natural environment in which it will have to develop and defend its existence
But playfulness is the very foundation of the DAR, the adventure when you think of "exist" and at the same time "to become" something that maybe even exceed this projected for a future of uncertainty. Thus, in the game, our lives and lose weight rarify the laws of necessity, for a moment that you autosospendono, leaving a gap in our dreams that follow the whims of the case and hunt prey a "real", but still too far away.

The end of 1rst part

NOTE 6.2
(83) Chiamiamo eventi (esistenziali) i fatti esperienziali dell'idema, per distinguerli dagli accadimenti (esistentivi) che concernono invece la quotidianità e in generale lo svolgersi della nostra vita pratica.
(84) L'eudemonismo designa un atteggiamento esistenziale e morale che privilegia la felicità individuale e sociale quale obbiettivo primario dell'azione morale, che in tal caso risulta in perfetto accordo con la ragione. Infatti è questa che ce lo conferma come moralmente "desiderabile", in quanto il bene del singolo (per l'eudemonismo) è possibile soltanto se coincide col bene di tutti.

NOTE 6.3
(85) Ricordo che Schopenauer riteneva risolvibile la sofferenza con l'attenuazione, fino all'annullamento, della volontà di vivere. L'arte, la compassione e infine l'ascesi possono condurre l'uomo fuori dalla plaga della sofferenza. Ciò diventa possibile attraverso la "negazione" del corpo. Quella di Schopenauer è in definitiva la stessa "fuga" dal tragico che propone il Buddhismo.

NOTE 6.4
(86)Ricordiamo che Epicuro riteneva che per conseguire la saggezza e la serenità fosse preferibile astenersi dal partecipare alla vita politica.

NOTE 6.5
(87) L'ambito dell'aiteria non può essere vista come un'entità totalizzante (alla maniera della materia), ma soltanto come l "insieme" delle entità aiteriali. Questo concetto verrà chiarito meglio in seguito; per ora basti anticipare che, essendo quello dell'aiteria un ambito esclusivamente "qualitativo", non si può dare che come un insieme di singole qualità. In altri termini: l'aiteria non è una "totalità", bensì una "pluralità" di aiteri, qualitativamente distinti.
(88) Il termine è stato posto prima da Democrito, ripresa dagli Stoici e dagli Scettici e soprattutto da Epicuro che lo indicò come l'ideale del saggio. Con essa viene conseguita la serenità che mette tra parentesi il dolore e la paura della morte.

NOTE 6.6
(89) J.C.Friedrich Schiller in Lettere sull'educazione estetica dell'uomo (1795).